AMTRAK TRAIN HISTORIES

LONG DISTANCE/EAST-MIDWEST

Changes, additions and discontinuances of Amtrak trains since it's creation.

Amtrak began operations on May 1, 1971, inheriting various trains from the private railroads. Initially, the railroads' train numbers were retained. On July 12, 1971, some schedule adjustments were made. And on November 14, 1971, Amtrak adopted its own train numbers.

Trains are listed in numerical order of train numbers. Except certain trains with three digit numbers which connect with the main trains with two digit numbers, are listed following the main trains.

Not all details are included for routes with multiple trains, primarily in local corridors.

Links are to zoomable Google Maps, which clarify some of the more interesting routings adopted by Amtrak, mostly in smaller cities.

Passenger Train Routes In Major Cities
In many of the largest cities, Amtrak continues to use routings within the cities which had been used by the private predecessor railroads.


29/30 - Capitol Limited
10/1/81 - introduced between Pittsburgh and Washington via Baltimore & Ohio, connecting with Broadway Limited in Pittsburgh. Train would use Pennsylvania station in Pittsburgh, a new connection was constructed east of station connecting with Baltimore & Ohio.
10/26/86 - becomes separate train between Chicago and Pittsburgh, also using former Pennsylvania route.
11/11/90 - rerouted between Chicago and Pittsburgh via Cleveland, using former New York Central route between Chicago and Cleveland, and former Pennsylvania route between Cleveland and former Pennsylvania main line at Alliance. This to allow downgrading of former Pennsylvania line west of Alliance. A new connection was constructed east of the Cleveland lakefront station, between the former New York Central and Pennsylvania lines. After the 1999 sale of Conrail lines to CSX and Norfolk Southern, this connection became integral in the formation of the new Norfolk Southern network.

30/31 - National Limited
5/1/71 - inherited from Penn Central (former Pennsylvania) between New York and St. Louis, and combined with former Missouri Pacific train between St. Louis and Kansas City. At the time, train was named the Spirit of St. Louis. Initially was combined with Broadway Limited between New York and Pittsburgh.
7/12/71 - becomes separate train from Broadway Limited between Harrisburg and Pittsburgh. Train most likely actually operated between Washington and Kansas City, while Broadway Limited operated between New York and Chicago. With trains exchanging cars in Harrisburg, enabling through service between these different city combinations. But because Amtrak had not yet adopted its own train numbers, this is not clear from the timetable. This practice definitely existed with the 11/14/71 schedule change, when Amtrak adopted its own train numbers.
11/14/71 - renamed National Limited. Train numbers 30 and 31 applied to train between Washington and Kansas City, with train numbers 40 and 41 applied to train between New York and Chicago. Trains exchanged cars in Harrisburg, as described above with 7/12/71 schedule change.
4/30/72 - train becomes completely separate train from Broadway Limited between New York and Kansas City, with separate connecting service between Harrisburg and Baltimore and Washington.
10/1/79 - discontinued.

430/431 - National Limited
4/30/72 - introduced as trains 530 and 531 between Harrisburg and Baltimore and Washington, connecting with trains 30 and 31. At the time, the Broadway Limited and National Limited became completely separate trains. And this became a second connecting train over this route, only operating three times weekly.
5/19/74 - renumbered 430 and 431.
10/29/78 - rerouted via main lines through Philadelphia.
10/1/79 - discontinued.

32/33 - Shenandoah
9/7/71 - a train named the West Virginian introduced between Washington and Parkersburg via Baltimore & Ohio.
2/72 - in an allegedly political move, experimentally assigned a United Aircraft Turbo Train, and renamed Potomac Turbo.
5/72 - Turbo Train removed from route, and renamed Potomac Special.
4/29/73 - discontinued.
6/10/73 - a train named the Blue Ridge introduced between Washington and Cumberland via Baltimore & Ohio.
10/31/76 - Shenandoah introduced between Washington and Cincinnati via Baltimore & Ohio, replacing Blue Ridge between Martinsburg and Cumberland. Remaining Blue Ridge service between Washington and Martinsburg was actually entirely within commuter railroad territory.
10/1/81 - Shenandoah discontinued, replaced in part with Capitol Limited.

34/35 - Hilltopper
6/1/77 - introduced between Washington and Catlettsburg WV via Richmond Fredericksburg & Potomac and Seaboard Coast Line, and via Norfolk & Western between Petersburg and Catlettsburg, connecting with James Whitcomb Riley. Train basically replaced the Mountaineer.
10/1/79 - discontinued.

37/38 - Fort Pitt
4/26/81 - introduced between Pittsburgh and Altoona via former Pennsylvania.
1/30/83 - discontinued.

40/41 - Broadway Limited
5/1/71 - inherited from Penn Central (former Pennsylvania) between Chicago and New York. Service initially combined or coordinated with Spirit of St. Louis, later National Limited, including connecting service between Harrisburg and Baltimore and Washington.
4/30/72 - becomes entirely separate train from National Limited.
11/11/90 - rerouted between Chicago and Pittsburgh via former Baltimore & Ohio, allowing downgrading of former Pennsylvania line. Initially, train used same connection east of Pittsburgh station originally constructed for Capitol Limited, requiring a backup move.
10/30/94 - new connection between former Pennsylvania and former Baltimore & Ohio opens in New Castle.
9/10/95 - discontinued, replaced in part with Three Rivers.
11/10/96 - restored, named Three Rivers.
3/7/2005 - discontinued.

440/441 - Broadway Limited
5/1/71 - inherited from Penn Central (former Pennsylvania) between Harrisburg and Baltimore and Washington, connecting with trains 40 and 41. Penn Central train had operated via Northern Central line through York PA. But under Amtrak, train would instead operate via "Columbia & Port Deposit" line along Susquehanna River between Harrisburg and Perryville MD. Perryville is the junction with the Northeast Corridor main line.
7/12/71 - train likely becomes part of Spirit of St. Louis operating between Washington and Kansas City, while Broadway Limited continued to operate between New York and Chicago. With trains exchanging cars in Harrisburg, enabling through service between these different city combinations. Because Amtrak had not yet adopted its own train numbers, this is not clear from the timetable. This practice definitely existed with the 11/14/71 schedule change, when Amtrak adopted its own train numbers.
11/14/71 - train numbers 30 and 31 applied to train between Washington and Kansas City, with train numbers 40 and 41 applied to train between New York and Chicago. Trains exchanged cars in Harrisburg, as described above with 7/12/71 schedule change.
4/30/72 - renumbered 540 and 541 and becomes a separate train between Harrisburg and Washington, with adoption of separate operation of Broadway Limited and National Limited.
5/19/74 - renumbered 440 and 441.
11/30/75 - rerouted via main lines through Philadelphia.
10/1/81 - discontinued upon introduction of Capitol Limited.

42/43 - Pennsylvanian
5/1/71 - inherited from Penn Central (former Pennsylvania) between Pittsburgh and New York. At the time, train was named the Duquesne.
11/14/71 - renamed Keystone.
6/11/72 - discontinued.
8/3/80 - restored, named Pennsylvanian.
11/7/98 - extended from Pittsburgh to Chicago, providing daytime service over same route a Capitol Limited.
2/10/2003 - discontinued from Pittsburgh to Chicago.

44/45 - Pennsylvanian
Numbers assigned to weekend or alternate operations.

46/47 - Three Rivers
9/10/95 - introduced between New York and Pittsburgh, in part replacing Broadway Limited, and connecting with Capitol Limited in Pittsburgh.
11/10/96 - replaced with restoration of trains 40 and 41, retaining name Three Rivers.

48/49 - Lake Shore Limited
5/10/71 - shortly after creation of Amtrak, introduced between Chicago and New York via former New York Central.
1/5/72 - discontinued.
10/31/75 - restored. In Cleveland would use new station along lakefront, instead of Cleveland Union Terminal.
4/7/91 - rerouted to serve Pennsylvania Station in New York, instead of Grand Central Terminal.

448/449 - Lake Shore Limited
10/31/75 - introduced between Boston and Albany via former New York Central, connecting with trains 48 and 49. Because the creation of Amtrak in 1971 had resulted in discontinuance of previous service between Boston and Albany, Penn Central had abandoned its 12 mile long "Post Road Branch", which had provided a direct connection between the Albany station and the line serving Boston. Thus, this Amtrak train initially required a backup move of 8 miles on the line serving Selkirk Yard, to connect between the "Hudson Line" and the Boston line.
10/28/79 - Post Road Branch reopened east of Albany, enabling elimination of backup move.

50/51 - Cardinal
5/1/71 - inherited from Penn Central (former New York Central) between Chicago and Cincinnati, and from Chesapeake & Ohio between Cincinnati and Washington. The Penn Central train was named the James Whitcomb Riley and the Chesapeake & Ohio train was named the George Washington. These were two separate trains, and initially Amtrak continued to operate them as two separate trains.
7/12/71 - James Whitcomb Riley and George Washington combined, providing through service between Chicago and Washington.
3/6/72 - diverted in Chicago from Central Station to Union Station via St. Charles Air Line, and a backup move in and out of Union Station via Burlington Northern.
10/29/72 - diverted in Cincinnati from Union Terminal to new River Road station.
10/16/73 - rerouted via Penn Central (former Pennsylvania) between Chicago and Cincinnati, via Logansport, Indianapolis, Richmond.
8/1/74 - rerouted via Chesapeake & Ohio between Chicago and Cincinnati. Initially, a backup move was required at 40th St. in Chicago between former Pennsylvania and Chicago & Western Indiana trackage. Chicago & Western Indiana was used between Chicago and Hammond. This would finally eliminate operation over deteriorated Penn Central trackage in Indiana.
4/1/76 - Conrail acquires Penn Central and other railroads, including Erie Lackawanna, and abandons lines with little traffic potential, including the Erie Lackawanna line through Indiana. Chesapeake & Ohio had trackage rights over a segment of the Erie Lackawanna line through Hammond, and the James Whitcomb Riley had operated over this segment. Chesapeake & Ohio began rerouting freight trains via the Baltimore & Ohio main line east to Wellsboro IN, and via a Chesapeake & Ohio branch line which joined the Cincinnati line at La Crosse IN. The James Whitcomb Riley was suspended between Chicago and Peru IN for a few weeks, with passengers bussed.
4/23/76 - arrangements made to enable resumption of service to Chicago via Hammond.
11/76 - backup move in Chicago at 40th St. eliminated, with new connection south of Union Station at 21st St. to Chicago & Western Indiana. This connection was constructed primarily for commuter trains between Chicago and Orland Park.
6/12/77 - diverted between Chicago and La Crosse IN via freight train route via Wellsboro. A backup move was required at Pine Jct. (Gary), connecting between former New York Central and Baltimore & Ohio trackage.
10/30/77 - renamed Cardinal.
7/17/78 - rerouted between Cottage Grove and Cincinnati via Baltimore & Ohio via Hamilton OH, enabling abandonment of Chesapeake & Ohio trackage.
2/1/79 - Charlottesville Union Station adopted as stop, at crossing with Southern Railway which then joined Amtrak.
10/1/81 - discontinued.
1/8/82 - restored.
4/27/86 - diverted between Chicago and Indianapolis via same route as Hoosier State, mostly via former Monon. This to allow downgrading of former Chesapeake & Ohio line. And routed east of Indianapolis via Baltimore & Ohio via Cottage Grove.
7/29/91 - diverted in Cincinnati back to Union Terminal.
6/30/93 - rerouted between Chicago and Munster primarily via former Chicago & Western Indiana and Chicago & Eastern Illinois through Dolton, and former Grand Trunk Western between Thornton Jct. and Munster.
7/22/94 - railroad and station relocated in Lafayette, eliminating street running.

450/451 - James Whitcomb Riley
5/1/71 - inherited from Chesapeake & Ohio between Charlottesville and Newport News, connecting with trains 50 and 51.
11/15/75 - Main Street Station in Richmond replaced by Staples Mill Station. Trains 450 and 451 meanwhile stopped at Ellerson station outside Richmond, with bus connections.
6/14/76 - discontinued, replaced in part with Colonial.

850/851 - Kentucky Cardinal
12/18/99 - introduced between Indianapolis and Jeffersonville via former Pennsylvania, connecting with Cardinal/Hoosier State.
12/4/2001 - extended from Jeffersonville to Louisville
7/6/2003 - discontinued.

52/53 - Floridian
5/1/71 - inherited from Penn Central (former Pennsylvania) between Chicago and Louisville, from Louisville & Nashville between Louisville and Montgomery, and from Seaboard Coast Line between Montgomery and Miami. At the time, train was named the South Wind. Initially used same route as James Whitcomb Riley (former New York Central) between Chicago and Indianapolis.
11/14/71 - renamed Floridian.
1/23/72 - returned to former Pennsylvania routing between Chicago and Indianapolis via Logansport, due to deteriorating track conditions on former New York Central.
8/1/74 - rerouted via Louisville & Nashville between Chicago and Nashville, including former Chicago & Eastern Illinois trackage between Chicago and Evansville. Initially, a backup move was required at 40th St. in Chicago between former Pennsylvania and Chicago & Western Indiana trackage. Chicago & Western Indiana was used between Chicago and Dolton. This would finally eliminate operation over deteriorated Penn Central trackage in Indiana.
9/14/75 - rerouted via Louisville & Nashville former Monon between Chicago and Louisville. Chicago & Western Indiana was used between Chicago and Hammond.
4/25/76 - renumbered 56 and 57.

54/55 - Mountaineer
3/24/75 - introduced between Catlettsburg WV and Norfolk via Norfolk & Western, connecting with James Whitcomb Riley.
6/1/77 - discontinued, replaced in part with Hilltopper.

55/56 - Vermonter
4/1/95 - introduced between Washington and St. Albans, mostly replacing the Montrealer. Train would use former New York Central between Springfield and Palmer, and New England Central (former Central Vermont) between Palmer and St. Albans. Train would reverse directions at Palmer.

56/57 - Floridian
4/25/76 - renumbered from 52 (to 57) and 53 (to 56), reversing the odd and even direction. Presumably, whereas Chicago to Louisville was considered the even "eastbound" direction on Penn Central, that direction was the odd southbound direction on Louisville & Nashville, including the former Monon.
11/76 - backup move in Chicago at 40th St. eliminated, with new connection south of Union Station at 21st St. to Chicago & Western Indiana. This connection was constructed primarily for commuter trains between Chicago and Orland Park.
10/1/79 - discontinued.

58/59 - City of New Orleans
5/1/71 - daytime train inherited from Illinois Central between Chicago and New Orleans. Prior to then, Illinois Central operated the City of New Orleans during the day, and the Panama Limited overnight between Chicago and New Orleans.
11/14/71 - overnight schedule and Panama Limited name adopted.
3/6/72 - diverted in Chicago from Central Station to Union Station via St. Charles Air Line, and a backup move in and out of Union Station via Burlington Northern.
2/1/81 - renamed City of New Orleans while remaining overnight.
9/10/95 - rerouted via Yazoo City between Memphis and Jackson, instead of via Grenada.

358/359 - River Cities
3/29/84 - introduced between St. Louis and Centralia via Southern Railway, connecting with trains 58 and 59.
11/4/93 - discontinued.

60/61 - Montrealer
9/29/72 - introduced between Washington and Montreal, via Boston & Maine between Springfield and White River Jct., via Central Vermont between White River Jct. and Cantic, and via Canadian National between Cantic and Montreal.
4/6/87 - suspended due to track conditions on former Boston & Maine.
7/18/89 - restored, via Central Vermont between New London and White River Jct. and St. Albans.
4/1/95 - discontinued, replaced in part with Vermonter.

63/64 - Maple Leaf
4/26/81 - introduced between New York and Toronto, operated by Via Rail Canada west of Niagara Falls. Prior to then, a Canadian train had existed between Buffalo and Toronto, operated by Toronto Hamilton & Buffalo Railway, and connecting with Amtrak trains in Buffalo.

63/64 - Niagara Rainbow
10/31/74 - existing train between New York and Buffalo named the Empire State Express, extended from Buffalo to Detroit across southern Ontario, Canada, via Penn Central (former New York Central).
4/25/76 - renamed Niagara Rainbow.
10/29/78 - rerouted to serve Niagara Falls.
1/31/79 - discontinued west of Niagara Falls.

66/67 - Night Owl
6/11/72 - overnight train introduced between Boston and Washington.
10/29/95 - Northeast Direct adopted as name for this and other trains.

68/69 - Adirondack
8/6/74 - introduced between New York and Montreal, via Penn Central (former New York Central) between New York and Albany, via Delaware & Hudson between Albany and Rouses Point, and via Canadian Pacific between Rouses Point and Montreal Windsor Station.
4/29/79 - rerouted between Albany and Saratoga Springs via Schenectady, switching between former New York Central and Delaware & Hudson at that location.
1/12/86 - rerouted from Rouses Point to Montreal Central Station via Canadian National.